The infamous “Blue Screen of Death” message - it’s often a device driver issue, but it could also signal a hardware problem or even an incorrect BIOS setting.
When the message refers to a disk problem and there were no recent hardware changes, get into the Recovery Console and run chkdsk/r. Exit and Windows should start normally. On rare occasions, chkdsk/r can cause problems, requiring a restore from your backup, so make sure you've got a good one.
Still not working? Check the hard drive cable for damage; also see if it’s the correct cable for the drive (40-conductor cable used on a Ultra-DMA drive which requires a 80-conductor cable). Another show stopper would be an overly aggressive drive data transfer rates.