This is one of the dreaded “blue screen of death” messages. Do a web search, and you’ll find it’s usually caused by a bad device driver. MS TechNet has a list of things to try here.
Our fast method for getting the box back on it’s feet is to run the System Restore utility in Safe Mode. Then you can easily reinstall or update the faulty driver.
However, what if nothing has been installed and this doesn’t resolve the issue? Try running the chkdsk/r command. In many instances, a slightly tweaked disk will bring the system to a halt with this message. Chkdsk can take a while, but this usually corrects a problem that System Restore won’t. If you find chkdsk takes a very long time, read the TechNet article and try their recommendations.