This week, we could not run Windows Update on a server due to the following error:
“Windows Update cannot currently check for updates, because the service is not running. You may need to restart your computer.”
When we checked the Windows Update service, we found it was running!
We restarted the service with no results. Per the advice on Microsoft's Partner support site, we opened up an elevated command prompt and ran sfc /scannow.
We started Windows Update and it's running OK again.